CpG oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) bind to and activate Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9), initiating an innate immune response.

CpG-A induces pDC to produce and release significantly higher levels of interferon alpha compared to other innate immune activators.

An Fc receptor is a protein found on the surface of certain cells that contribute to the protective functions of the immune system.

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells are a subset of dendritic cells that regulate immune tolerance and when activated, can secrete high levels of type I interferons and recruit and stimulate T cells.

T cells
T cells are part of the immune system that help protect the body from infection and, when stimulated, can help fight cancer.

Toll-like receptors recognize pathogens in the body and play a fundamental role in activating innate immune responses.

TLR9 agonists
TLR9 agonists stimulate both innate and adaptive immune responses.

Type 1 Interferons
Type 1 Interferons boost the ability of many immune cells to attack cancer cells and can drive a more robust response in anti-tumor T cells.

Virus-like particles are multiprotein biologic structures that mimic viruses in activating immune cells, but lack the viral genome and are, therefore, non-infectious.